Professor Michael KAEDING
Differentiation has been core to the constitutional architecture of the EU and gained prominence in light of the ongoing manifestations of centrifugal forces. Recent challenges faced by the EU raise the question of whether Member States will continue on the same integrationist track. As it strives to force a post-crisis future, respond to Russia´s war in the Ukraine, Brexit, global challenges, such as climate change and reach out to European citizens, it is urgent to build the next phase on solid foundations. Differentiation is a compelling issue in deliberations on Europe´s future.
This optional course will provide an in-depth practical and conceptual overview of the results of research on differentiation addressing the following topics: ramifications of different degrees and types of differentiation; opportunities, benefits and risks of more or less differentiation, both normatively and empirically, including implications for democratic governance; the politics of differentiation; internal differentiation in core state powers; external differentiation beyond the member states and vis-à-vis enlargement and the EU´s Eastern neighbourhood; and differentiation through flexible implementation.