Judge at the Court of Justice of the European Communities since 17 January 2002. Since October 2003, acted as President of the Third Chamber of the Court, which, since May 2004, has involved permanent membership of the Grand Chamber of the Court.

Jur. Kand, 1969, Jur.Lic. 1971 and Doctor of Laws 1977 (University of Turku). Associate Professor of Public Law, University of Turku 1978-81. Armfelt Professor of Law, Abo Akademi University (Turku) 1981-96, Director of its Institute for Human Rights 1985-95 and First Vice-Rector of the University 1994-95.

Represented the Finnish Government at a number of international conferences and meetings and functioned as an expert for several Finnish Ministries and committees of the Finnish Parliament as well as national and international organizations, including the UN, UNESCO, OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Red Cross movement.

Director and Principal Legal Adviser at the Legal Service of the European Commission in charge of EU external relations 1995-2001; Deputy Director-General of the said Legal Service 2001-02.

He has published extensively in areas such as international law and international relations, humanitarian law and human rights law, comparative constitutional and administrative law as well as EU law and EU external relations. His most recent books include A Citizens' Europe: In Search of a New Order (co-editor, London 1995: Sage Publications); The OSCE in the Maintenance of Peace and Security (co-editor, Dordrecht 1997: Kluwer); The New Chemical Weapons Convention: Implementation and Prospects (co-editor, Dordrecht 1999: Kluwer); The Jurisprudence of Human Rights Law: A Comparative Interpretative Approach (co-editor, Turku 2000: Institute for Human Rights, Åbo Akademi University) and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Textbook (co-editor, second, revised edition, Dordrecht 2001: Kluwer).

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